Cats, data from whom is posted here, were acquired from a certified commercial class B dealer. This means that they were either stray cats collected on streets by animal control agencies or animals surrended to shelters by owners, and for whom suitable adoptions were not available. Rather than to be euthanized, they were sold to a dealer, underwent health checks, and then were resold to research facilities. In IB laboratory, cats lived several years participating in different experiments and also contributing to training of students. One cat was in the lab for 15 years, never underwent any surgery but contributed to numerous biomechanical recordings and several publications. He passed away from old age. One other cat was in the lab for about 10 years, eventually was implanted with the head implant and contributed to 3 published studies before the implant was removed, and the cat fully rehabilitated and adopted out. Her photograph shortly before the adoption is featured on the cover of a journal that published one of the studies, to which this cat had contributed. Read about our cats and their contribution to science in the tabs below.

Our work complied with all applicable regulations on the use of animals in research, and we did our very best to minimize discomfort of the cats we worked with. Read more on the use of animals in research here and here.

Cat 1

A white with black patches male of an average size, 4.2 kg

 

1) Quantification of motor cortex activity and full-body biomechanics during locomotion. Published.

2) Activity of motor cortex during scratching. Published.

 

In chronological order:

Prilutsky BI, Sirota MG, Gregor RJ, Beloozerova IN. Quantification of motor cortex activity and full-body biomechanics during unconstrained locomotion. J. Neurophysiol., 94(4):  2959-2969, 2005. PDF

Sirota MG, Pavlova GA, Beloozerova IN. Activity of the motor cortex during scratching. JNeurophysiol., 95 (2): 753-765, 2006. PDF

 

Cat 2

A medium size black female

 

1) Quantification of motor cortex activity and full-body biomechanics during locomotion. Published.

2) Activity of motor cortex during scratching. Published.

 

In chronological order:

Prilutsky BI, Sirota MG, Gregor RJ, Beloozerova IN. Quantification of motor cortex activity and full-body biomechanics during unconstrained locomotion. J. Neurophysiol., 94(4):  2959-2969, 2005. PDF

Sirota MG, Pavlova GA, Beloozerova IN. Activity of the motor cortex during scratching. JNeurophysiol., 95 (2): 753-765, 2006. PDF

Cat 4

A white with black patches male of an average size, 3,8 kg

 

1) Activity of motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and ladders with crosspieces of different width. Published.

In chronological order:

Beloozerova IN, Farrell BJ, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI. Differences in movement mechanics, electromyographic, and motor cortex activity between accurate and non-accurate stepping. J. Neurophysiol., 103: 2285-2300, 2010. PDF

Cat 7

A medium size tabby female, 2.5 kg

 

1) Activity of motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and ladders with crosspieces of different width. Published.

2) Activity of motor cortex during walking on the flat surface under normal laboratory illumination and in complete darkness. Published.

3) Comparative study of the activity of pyramidal tract projecting neurons (PTNs) of the motor cortex with fast and slow conducting axons; walking on the flat surface and ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published.

4) Activity of neurons in the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VL) during walking on the flat surface and the ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published.

5) Activity of red nucleus during balance on platform tilting left-right. Published.

In chronological order:

Beloozerova IN, Farrell BJ, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI. Differences in movement mechanics, electromyographic, and motor cortex activity between accurate and non-accurate stepping. J. Neurophysiol., 103: 2285-2300, 2010. PDF

Zelenin PV, Beloozerova IN, Sirota MG, Orlovsky GN, Deliagina TG. Activity of red nucleus neurons in the cat during postural corrections. J. Neurosci., 30(43): 14533-14542, 2010. PDF

Marlinski V, Nilaweera WU, Zelenin PV, Sirota MG, Beloozerova IN. Signals from the ventrolateral thalamus to the motor cortex during locomotion. J Neurophysiol., 107: 455-472, 2012. PDF

Stout EE, Beloozerova IN. Differential responses of fast and slow conducting pyramidal tract neurons to changes in accuracy demands during locomotion. J. Physiol (L.), 591(Pt 10): 2647-2666, 2013. PDF

Armer MC, Nilaweera WU, Rivers TJ, Dasgupta NM, Beloozerova IN. Effect of light on the activity of motor cortex during locomotion. Behav. Brain Res., 250: 238-250, 2013. PDF

Cat 8

A large grey male, 5 kg.

1) Activity of motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and ladders with crosspieces of different width. Published. 

2) Stabilization of the paw during walking. Published.

3) Activity of neurons in the motor cortex during walking on the ladder when one on the crisspieces displaces at different time of cat approaching it. Published.

4) Activity of neurons in the motor compartment of the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RE) during walking on the flat surface and the ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published-1, Published-2.

In chronological order:

Beloozerova IN, Farrell BJ, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI. Differences in movement mechanics, electromyographic, and motor cortex activity between accurate and non-accurate stepping. J. Neurophysiol., 103: 2285-2300, 2010. PDF

Marlinski V, Sirota MG, Beloozerova IN. Differential gating of thalamo-cortical signals by reticular nucleus of thalamus during locomotion. J.Neurosci., 32(45): 15823-15836, 2012. PDF

 Marlinski V, Beloozerova IN. Burst firing of neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus during locomotion. J. Neurophysiol., 112(1): 181-192, 2014. PDF

Klishko AN, Farrell BJ, Beloozerova IN, Latash ML, Prilutsky BI. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion. J. Neurophysiol., 112(6):1376-1391, 2014. PDF

Stout EE, Sirota MG, Beloozerova IN. Known and unexpected constraints evoke different kinematic, muscle, and motor cortical neuron responses during locomotion. Eur. J. Neurosci., 42(9): 2666-2677, 2015. PDF

Cat 9

A medium size black & white male, 4 kg.

1) Activity of motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and ladders with crosspieces of different width. Published. 

2) Activity of pyramidal tract neurons of the motor cortex during standing and walking on an inclined plane. Published.

3) Activity of neurons in the motor cortex during walking on the ladder when one on the crosspieces displaces at different time of cat approaching it. Published.

4) Activity of red nucleus during balancing on a platform that tilts left-right. Published.

5) Stabilization of the paw during walking. Published.

In chronological order:

Karayannidou A, Beloozerova IN, Zelenin PV, Stout EE, Sirota MG, Orlovsky GN, Deliagina TG. Activity of pyramidal tract neurons in the cat during standing and walking on an inclined plane. J. Physiol (L.), 587 (Pt 15): 3795-3811, 2009. PDF

Beloozerova IN, Farrell BJ, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI. Differences in movement mechanics, electromyographic, and motor cortex activity between accurate and non-accurate stepping. J. Neurophysiol., 103: 2285-2300, 2010. PDF

Zelenin PV, Beloozerova IN, Sirota MG, Orlovsky GN, Deliagina TG. Activity of red nucleus neurons in the cat during postural corrections. J. Neurosci., 30(43): 14533-14542, 2010. PDF

Klishko AN, Farrell BJ, Beloozerova IN, Latash ML, Prilutsky BI. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion. J. Neurophysiol., 112(6):1376-1391, 2014. PDF

Stout EE, Sirota MG, Beloozerova IN. Known and unexpected constraints evoke different kinematic, muscle, and motor cortical neuron responses during locomotion. Eur. J. Neurosci., 42(9): 2666-2677, 2015. PDF

Cat 10

A medium size gray female

1) Activity of motor cortex while walking with straddling a long obstacle. Published.

2) Activity of motor cortex while walking along a 5 cm narrow strip. Published.

3) Postural responses to lateral body pushes. Published.

4) Activity of red nucleus during balance on platform tilting left-right. Published.

These are the notes taken during recordings and other procedures. We apologize for poor penmanship, misspellings, and occasional Russian. We hope to eventually type it all up. In the mean while, we will do our best to decipher the writing if necessary.  There are more notes on experiments with this cat, please inquire with Dr. Beloozerova if needed.

In chronological order:

Karayannidou A, Zelenin PV, Orlovsky GN, Sirota MG, Beloozerova IN, Deliagina TG. Maintenance of lateral stability during standing and walking in the cat. J. Neurophysiol., 101(1): 8-19, 2009. PDF

Zelenin PV, Beloozerova IN, Sirota MG, Orlovsky GN, Deliagina TG. Activity of red nucleus neurons in the cat during postural corrections. J. Neurosci., 30(43): 14533-42, 2010. PDF

Farrell BJ, Bulgakova MA, Beloozerova IN, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI.  Body stability and muscle and motor cortex activity during walking with wide stance. J. Neurophysiol., 112(3): 504-524, 2014. PDF

Farrell BJ, Bulgakova MA, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI, Beloozerova IN. Accurate stepping on a narrow path: mechanics, EMG, and motor cortex activity in the cat. J. Neurophysiol., 114(5): 2682-2702, 2015. PDF

Cat 11

A large three-colored female, 4 kg

1) Activity of motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and ladders with crosspieces of different width. Published

2) Gaze behaviors during locomotion on flat surface in the darkness and light, along ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide and a pathway cluttered with many small objects. Published.

3) Head movement during walking on the flat surface in the darkness and light. Published.

4) Activity of motor cortex while walking with straddling a long obstacle. Published.

5) Activity of motor cortex while walking along a 5 cm narrow strip. Published.

6) Activity of somatosensory cortex during walking on the flat surface and the ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published.

7) Activity of neurons in the motor compartment of the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RE) during walking on the flat surface and the ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published-1, Published-2.

These are the notes taken during recordings and other procedures. We apologize for poor penmanship, misspellings, and occasional Russian. We hope to eventually type it all up. In the mean while, we will do our best to decipher the writing if necessary.  There are more notes on experiments with this cat, please inquire with Dr. Beloozerova if needed.

Activity of motor cortex during walking along 5 cm narrow strip and while straddling a long obstacle. Lab notes.

In chronological order:

Beloozerova IN, Farrell BJ, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI. Differences in movement mechanics, electromyographic, and motor cortex activity between accurate and non-accurate stepping. J. Neurophysiol., 103: 2285-2300, 2010. PDF

Marlinski V, Sirota MG, Beloozerova IN. Differential gating of thalamo-cortical signals by reticular nucleus of thalamus during locomotion. J.Neurosci., 32(45): 15823-15836, 2012. PDF

Marlinski V, Beloozerova IN. Burst firing of neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus during locomotion. J. Neurophysiol., 112(1): 181-192, 2014. PDF

Rivers TJ, Sirota MG, Guttentag AI, Ogorodnikov DA, Shah NA, Beloozerova IN. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats. Neuroscience, 275: 477-499, 2014PDF

Farrell BJ, Bulgakova MA, Beloozerova IN, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI.  Body stability and muscle and motor cortex activity during walking with wide stance. J. Neurophysiol., 112(3): 504-524, 2014. PDF

Farrell BJ, Bulgakova MA, Sirota MG, Prilutsky BI, Beloozerova IN. Accurate stepping on a narrow path: mechanics, EMG, and motor cortex activity in the cat. J. Neurophysiol., 114(5): 2682-2702, 2015. PDF

Favorov OV, Nilaweera WU, Miasnikov AA, Beloozerova IN. Activity of somatosensory-responsive neurons in high subdivisions of SI cortex during locomotion. J. Neurosci., 35(20): 7763-7776, 2015. PDF

Zubair HN, Beloozerova IN, Sun H, Marlinski V. Head movement during walking in the cat. Neuroscience, 332:101-20, 2016. PDF

Cat 12

A large tabby male, 4 kg

1) Gaze behaviors during locomotion on flat surface in the darkness and light, along ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide and a pathway cluttered with many small objects. Published.

 

2) Head movement during walking on the flat surface in the darkness and light. Published.

3) Activity of motor cortex during walking on the flat surface in the darkness and light. Published.

4) Comparative study of the activity of pyramidal tract projecting neurons (PTNs) of the motor cortex with fast and slow conducting axons; walking on the flat surface and ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published.

5) Activity of neurons in the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus (VL) during walking on the flat surface and the ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published.

These are the notes taken during recordings and other procedures. We apologize for poor penmanship, misspellings, and occasional Russian. We hope to eventually type it all up. In the mean while, we will do our best to decipher the writing if necessary.  There are more notes on experiments with this cat, please inquire with Dr. Beloozerova if needed.

In chronological order:

 

Marlinski V, Nilaweera WU, Zelenin PV, Sirota MG, Beloozerova IN. Signals from the ventrolateral thalamus to the motor cortex during locomotion. J Neurophysiol 107: 455-472, 2012. PDF

Armer MC, Nilaweera WU, Rivers TJ, Dasgupta NM, Beloozerova IN. Effect of light on the activity of motor cortex during locomotion. Behav. Brain Res., 250: 238-250, 2013. PDF

Stout EE, Beloozerova IN. Differential responses of fast and slow conducting pyramidal tract neurons to changes in accuracy demands during locomotion. J. Physiol (L.), 591(Pt 10): 2647-2666, 2013. PDF

Rivers TJ, Sirota MG, Guttentag AI, Ogorodnikov DA, Shah NA, Beloozerova IN. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats. Neuroscience, 275: 477-499, 2014. PDF

Zubair HN, Beloozerova IN, Sun H, Marlinski V. Head movement during walking in the cat. Neuroscience, 332:101-20, 2016. PDF

Cat 13

A medium size tabby female, 3 kg

1) Gaze behaviors during locomotion on flat surface in the darkness and light, along ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide and a pathway cluttered with many small objects. Published.

2) Head movement during walking on the flat surface in the darkness and light. Published.

3) Activity of somatosensory cortex during walking on the flat surface and the ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. Published.

No histology was made. The cat was fully rehabilitated and adopted out.
In chronological order:

Rivers TJ, Sirota MG, Guttentag AI, Ogorodnikov DA, Shah NA, Beloozerova IN. Gaze shifts and fixations dominate gaze behavior of walking cats. Neuroscience, 275: 477-499, 2014PDF

Favorov OV, Nilaweera WU, Miasnikov AA, Beloozerova IN. Activity of somatosensory-responsive neurons in high subdivisions of SI cortex during locomotion. J. Neurosci., 35(20): 7763-7776, 2015. PDF

Zubair HN, Beloozerova IN, Sun H, Marlinski V. Head movement during walking in the cat. Neuroscience, 332:101-20, 2016. PDF

Cat 14

A medium-large tabby male.

1) Strategies for small obstacle avoidance during walking. Published: J. Neurophysiol., 118(2): 817-831 2017.

No histology was made. The cat was fully rehabilitated and adopted out.

In chronological order:

Chu MI, Seto SH, Beloozerova IN, Marlinski V. Strategies for obstacle avoidance during walking in the cat. J. Neurophysiol., 118(2): 817-831, 2017.