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antidromic | CAT Brain
Name Excerpt In-Text Tag Sample EXP
PTN 3182 Activity of a pyramidal tract projecting cell (PTN) of  motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and horizontal ladder with crosspieces 5, 12, and 18 cm wide. Latent period of cell’s response to stimulation of the pyramidal tract was 0.9 ms; collision test was satisfied. The cell was activated by adduction of the contralateral shoulder, that

Activity of a pyramidal tract projecting cell (PTN) of the motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and horizontal ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide. The crosspieces had flat tops and were positioned 25 cm apart. the cell was recorded in track 21 of cat 7 (see cortical map). Latent period of cell’s response to electrical stimulation of the pyramidal tract was 0.9 ms; collision test was satisfied. The cell was activated by adduction of the contralateral shoulder, that is by the shoulder movement toward the body. This PTN was one of the 145 neurons, activity of which was reported in Stout and Beloozerova, 2013.
This PTN was recorded simultaneously with a group of neurons from the ventrolateral thalamus, VL 115 (group) recorded in track 3. VL neurons responded to touch and movement of the contralateral hip. PTN is recorded on channel 2, VL group is recorded on channel 1.

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PTN 3199 Activity of a pyramidal tract projecting neuron (PTN) of the motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and horizontal ladders with crosspieces 18, 12 and 5 cm wide. Latent period of cell’s response to stimulation of the pyramidal tract was 0.95 ms; collision test was satisfied. The cell was activated by ventral flexion of the

Activity of a pyramidal tract projecting neuron (PTN) of the motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and horizontal ladders with crosspieces 18, 12 and 5 cm wide. In all ladders the crosspieces had flat tops and were positioned 25 cm apart. Cell was recorded in track 22 of cat 7. Latent period of cell’s response to electrical stimulation of the pyramidal tract was 0.95 ms; collision test was satisfied. The cell was activated by ventral flexion of the contralateral wrist, that fingers moving down.

clustered simultaneously projesction publish adduction recording created resting information neurons recorded by Zinaida Andreevna Tamarova, analyzed by IB
PTN 3198 Activity of a pyramidal tract projecting neuron (PTN) of the motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and horizontal ladders with crosspieces 18, 12 and 5 cm wide. Latent period of response to stimulation of the pyramidal tract was 0.9 ms; collision test was satisfied. The cell was activated by flexion of the contralateral shoulder, that

Activity of a pyramidal tract projecting neuron (PTN) of the motor cortex during walking on the flat surface and horizontal ladders with crosspieces 18, 12 and 5 cm wide. In all ladders the crosspieces had flat tops and were positioned 25 cm apart. Cell was recorded in track 22 of cat 7. Latent period of cells’ response to electrical stimulation of the pyramidal tract was 0.9 ms; collision test was satisfied. The cell was activated by flexion of the contralateral shoulder, that is, the shoulder forward movement.

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PTN & VL 3255; VL 217 Simultaneous recording of 2 neurons: in the motor cortex (MC) and ventrolateral thalamus (VL). MC neuron projects to the pyramidal tract (is a PTN), and VL neuron projects to distal forelimb region of the MC, and thus is a thalamo-cortical projection neuron (TC). Walking on the flat surface and ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide.

Simultaneous recording of 2 neurons: in the motor cortex (MC) and ventrolateral thalamus (VL). MC neuron projects to the pyramidal tract and VL neuron projects to distal forelimb region of the MC. Walking on the flat surface and ladder with crosspieces 5 cm wide.

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PTNs 3246, 3247 .//dev.cat-brain.orghttps://catbrain.blob.core.windows.net/catbrain//2017/02/walking_933.txt”>walking_933

During navigation through complex natural environments, people and animals must adapt their movements when the environment changes. The neural mechanisms of such adaptations are poorly understood, especially with respect to constraints that are unexpected and must be adapted to quickly. In this study, we recorded forelimb-related kinematics, muscle activity, and the activity of motor cortical neurons in cats walking along a raised horizontal ladder, a complex locomotion task requiring accurate limb placement. One of the crosspieces was motorized, and displaced before the cat stepped on the ladder or at different points along the cat’s progression over the ladder, either towards or away from the cat. We found that, when the crosspiece was displaced before the cat stepped onto the ladder, the kinematic modifications were complex and involved all forelimb joints. When the crosspiece displaced unexpectedly while the cat was on the ladder, the kinematic modifications were minimalistic and primarily involved distal joints. The activity of M. triceps and M. extensor digitorum communis differed based on the direction of displacement. Out of 151
neurons tested, 69% responded to at least one condition; however, neurons were significantly more likely to respond when crosspiece displacement was unexpected. Most often they responded during the swing phase. These results suggest that different neural mechanisms and motor control strategies are used to overcome constraints for locomotor movements depending on whether they are known or emerge unexpectedly.

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